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[Korean grammar] �?� ??? (Irregular Conjugation)

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??? ??? ?? ????.(??)
A mosquito bit me, so my eye became swollen.


?? ??? ??, ??? ?? ???.(??)
I put coffee, cream, and sugar in the cup and stir it all together.


?? ?? ? ????(??)
Which outfit is better?


Grammar Focus:
For a few verb and adjective stems that end in ?, ? is omitted when added to an ending that begins with a vowel.


Although the stems of ?? (to take off), ?? (to laugh), and ?? (to wash) end in ? they are conjugated regularly.

Conversation:
A: ?? ??? ?? ?????
Who named your child?
B: ????? ?? ????.
His/Her grandfather named him/her.

A: ?? ? ????? Did you get over your cold?
B: ?, ?? ????. Yes, I�m fine now.

A: ? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????.
This word is important, so please underline it
B: ?. ?????.
Okay, I will.

In Korean, vowels will often combine when they meet. For example, ??+?? combine to become ???. . However, in the case of irregular ? stems, even though vowels may meet after the ? is deleted, they do not combine.
� ?? + -?? -> ??? (?)/ ?? (X) (?? is the combined form of ?? + -??.)
� ?? +…

[Korean grammar] �?� ??? (Irregular Conjugation)

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????? ??? ??? ??? ???.
Snow White has black hair and a white complexion.


??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???.
The queen gave Snow White a red apple.


??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???.
The prince looked at Snow White with his big blue eyes.


Grammar Focus:
When an adjective stem ending in ? is added to an ending that begins with a vowel, ? is omitted.
1. When endings beginning in vowels other than -?/? are added to adjective stems ending in ?, ? is omitted.

2. When endings beginning in -?/? are added to adjective stems ending in ?, ? is omitted, and ? is added.


Although the stems of ?? (to be good), ?? (many), ?? (to bear, to give birth to), and ?? (to put in, to insert) etc. end in ? they are conjugated regularly.

Conversation:
A: ???! ?? ??? ?? ???. 
Look! The autumn sky is really blue.
B: ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???.
The sky is blue, and the clouds are white, just like a painting.

A: ??? ?? ?????.
Your face has tanned really brown (black).
B: ?? ? ??? ?? ?? ???.
That�s because I went to the beach during vacation.

A: ?? ??? ?? ??? ??…

[Korean grammar] �?� ??? (Irregular Conjugation)

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? ?? ??? ? ??? ??? ???. (???)
Dane is popular because he can sing well.


?? ???? ???? ???? ???.(???)
The subway is faster than the bus during rush hour.


?? ??? ???.(???)
I don�t speak English.


Grammar Focus:
For most verb and adjective stems that end in ?, the ? of ? is omitted, and an additional ? is added to form ??.


Conversation:
A: ?? ?, ?? ????? ????.
Junho, Did you cut your hair? It�s stylish.
B: ???? ????.
Really? Thanks.

A: ?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ? ????.
Eric and Jason are twins, but they don�t resemble each other.
B: ?, ??? ?? ???.
Right, and their personalities are really different, too.

[Korean grammar] �?� ??? (Irregular Conjugation)

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??? ???? ????.
I listen to music when I exercise.


?? ??? ??? ???.
I had no money, so I went by foot.


? ???? ????? ?????.
I asked her for her phone number.


Grammar Focus:
For a few verb stems that end in ?, ? changes to ? when added to an ending that begins with a vowel.


Although the stems of ?? (to close), ?? (to receive), and ?? (to believe) end in they are conjugated regularly.

Conversation:
A: ?? ?, ??? ??? ?? ??? ? ?????
Carol, the weather�s nice, so why don�t we go for a walk outside?
B: ?, ???. Okay, that sounds nice.

A: ? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???.
Have you heard this song? It�s really good.
B: ???? ?? ??????
Really? Who sings it?

[Korean grammar] �?� ??? (Irregular Conjugation)

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??? ????? ?????.
The coffee�s hot, so be careful.


??? ??? ?? ????.
It's cold outside, so I stayed home.


?? ?? ??? ????.
I like spicy food.


Grammar Focus:
For a few verb and adjective stems that end in ?, ? changes to ? or ? when added to an ending that begins with a vowel. ?? (to assist) and ?? (lovely/charming) are the only two words that change to ?, while all others change to ?.


Although the stems of ?? (to be narrow), ?? (to wear), ?? (to chew), and ?? (to catch) end in ?, they are conjugated regularly.

Conversation:
A: ?? ??? ?????? What kind of movies do you like?
B: ?? ??? ??? ????. I like scary movies.

A: ??? ???? ?? ? ???.
The food is a little bland, so could I have some salt?
B: ?? ????. Here you go.

A: ??? ??? ????? ?? ????.
Who does the child resemble most? She/He�s adorable.
B: ?????. ??? ?? ????.
Thank you. She/He resembles his/her mother.

[Korean grammar] �?� ??? (Irregular Conjugation)

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??? ??? ? ???.
The girl plays well by herself.


???? ? ?? ??? ?? ???.
I�d like to know what time the department store opens.


?? ??? ? ????
What are you making?


Grammar Focus:
For verb and adjective stems that end in ?, ? is omitted without exception when adding an ending that begins with?, ? or ? . However, when an ending that begins with -? is added to such a stem, even though? remains as a final consonant, it is treated as a vowel, and therefore -? is omitted.


When -(?)? is added to stems ending in ?, such as -(?)? ?, -(?)? ?? and -(?)? ???, -(?)? is omitted, and the stem attaches directly to the ending. 

Conversation:
A: ?? ? ?? ???. I want to lose some weight.
B: ??? ???? ??? ?? ? ??? ?? ???.
In that case, stop eating sweets like cake and chocolate.

A: ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????
Do you know where I can get an electronic dictionary for a good price?
B: ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ? ???.
Go to Yongsan. They sell electronics cheap there.

A: ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????.
Our house is far from school, so it�s hard to comm…

[Korean grammar] �?� ??? (Irregular Conjugation)

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?? ?? ?? ?? ???.
Minu is really busy these days.


? ? ? ???.
Please turn off the lights.


?? ???.
(I'm) hungry.


Grammar Focus:
For verb and adjective stems that end in ?, ? is omitted without exception when adding an ending that begins with ?/?. Then, the vowel that preceded ? determines whether ? or ? is used in the ending. That is, when the vowel is ? or ?, ? is used, otherwise ? is used. In the case of single-syllable stems in which ? is the only vowel, ? is added after ? is omitted.



A: ?? ?, ?? ???? Hami, are you crying?
B: ?, ??? ?? ??? ?? ???.
Yes, I�m crying because the movie was so sad.

A: ??? ?? ? ?? ????
Did you have a nice picnic over the weekend?
B: ???, ??? ??? ??? ? ???.
No, the weather was bad, so I couldn�t go.

A: ?? ? ??? ?????
Why didn�t you come to school yesterday?
B: ?? ?? ????. ??? ??? ? ???.
I had a bad stomachache. So I couldn�t come to school.